Citing sources is a key part of the academic writing process. Source references are meant to express unambiguously and transparently what sources the author has used in their text. References must be made utilising the established citation practices of the field in question. Different disciplines may have their own citation practices on which you will receive guidance from your degree programme. It is recommended that you acquaint yourself with source citation practices in the early stages of your writing process.
You can study the use of source citations and drawing up a bibliography, for example, with material provided by the Student’s Digital Skills course or the Kielijelppi referencing guidelines (in Finnish only).
More information on the use of images in academic writing and referring to images is available in the Tips for information retrieval and management.
Reference management software
Once you have studied the citation practices in your discipline, you may start using reference management software. The software helps you to keep your references in order and draw up a bibliography in accordance with a certain style. There are many different reference management programs available, such as EndNote, Zotero and Mendeley.
Acquaint yourself with reference management programs on the Library website.
Copyright and plagiarism
Familiarise yourself with the self-study materials on the Kopiraittila website, which will provide you with information on the appropriate consideration of copyright in scientific texts (for example, the use of images and graphs and appropriate citing from the perspective of copyright).
Responsible conduct of research and procedures for handling allegations of misconduct in Finland (PDF)
The University of Helsinki also uses the plagiarism detection system Urkund to support teaching and the supervision of academic writing.